Malaria microscopy quality assurance manual version 2. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria learn microbiology online. Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of. Malaria disease diagnosiscurrent status of cad based approach. Advances in molecular diagnosis of malaria sciencedirect. System manifestations differential diagnosis general fever, malaise, prostration, body ache any cause for fever and sepsis. The global impact of malaria has spurred interest in developing effective diagnostic strategies not only for resourcelimited areas where malaria is a substantial burden on society, but also in developed countries, where malaria diagnostic expertise is often. Certain blood tests can help your doctor by showing. Malaria disease diagnosiscurrent status of cad based. Malarial parasite was screened in 128 malaria suspected patients and 150 healthy controls, by speciesspecific pcr, microscopy of blood. A blood specimen collected from the patient is applied to the sample pad on the test card along with certain reagents. Powerpoint is the worlds most popular presentation software which can let you create professional malaria powerpoint presentation easily and in no time.
The requirements of a diagnostic test are specificity, sensitivity, ease of performance and a reasonable cost. Chiodini5,6 for the general haematology task force of the british committee for standards in haematology. In endemic countries like pakistan precise and timely diagnosis of malaria is imperative to overcome the associated risks of fatal outcomes. The first symptoms of malaria most often fever, chills, sweats, headaches, muscle pains, nausea and vomiting are often not specific and are also found in other diseases such as the flu and common viral infections. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of malaria are discussed separately. Definition malaria is an acute illness and can become chronic, caused by protozoa that live intra cells, the genus plasmodium which is characterized by fever, anemia, and splenomegaly. Improper application of drugs due to incorrect diagnosis of the disease may. Chloroquine resochin 1934, 1946 chloroquine was discovered by a german, hans andersag, in 1934 at bayer i. Malaria diagnosis is carried out by microscopic examination of blood films collected by. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are critical factors in reducing morbidity and mortality, as delayed treatment of malaria increases. More recently, modern techniques utilizing antigen tests or polymerase chain reaction. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria conventional and rapid diagnostic methods michael l.
A rapid diagnostic test rdt is an alternate way of quickly establishing the diagnosis of malaria infection by detecting specific malaria antigens in a persons blood. Current available techniques can be separated in three categories. The complications related to malaria are as follows. Ppt malaria powerpoint presentation free to download id. Feb 23, 2018 system manifestations differential diagnosis general fever, malaise, prostration, body ache any cause for fever and sepsis. The global control of malaria is more challenging than that of many other infectious diseases. Malaria diagnosis involves iden tifying malaria parasites or antigensproducts in patient blood.
Free download malaria powerpoint presentation slides. The mainstay of malaria diagnosis has been the microscopic examination of blood, utilizing blood films. The destruction of red blood cells by the malaria parasite can cause severe anemia. Uk malaria treatment guidelines 2016 journal of infection. Clinical diagnosis is the least expensive, most commonly used method and is the basis for selftreatment. Malaria is a disease that is found in hundreds of different countries around the world and over 3 billion people are at risk from the disease. Malaria symptoms symptoms of malaria may include fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhoea, cough, stomach, pain and muscular aches and weakness. Technical aspects of laboratory tools for diagnosis of malaria are discussed further separately. Health agencies and volunteers treating fever cases in inaccessible areas are being provided with rapid diagnostic test rdt kits pf specific so far and now bivalent rdt for diagnosis of malaria cases so as to provide full. Dec 07, 2011 malaria symptoms symptoms of malaria may include fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhoea, cough, stomach, pain and muscular aches and weakness. Elimination of the malaria parasites that caused the treated illness. Introduction light microscopy antigen detection rapid malaria diagnosis tests rdts serology other qbc pcr summary 3.
Ppt malaria powerpoint presentation free to download. Although blood is the sample most frequently used to make a diagnosis, both saliva and urine have been investigated as alternative, less invasive specimens. It commences with the bite of female anopheles mosquitoes which carries this. If infected with the malaria parasite, plasmodium results in the most severe form of malaria and if left untreated, it can cause serous illnesses. Lab diagnosis of malaria parasites is the property of its rightful owner. Accurate diagnosis of malaria plays an essential part in malaria control. Who recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria.
The global impact of malaria has spurred interest in developing effective diagnostic strategies not only for resourcelimited areas where malaria is a substantial burden on society, but also in developed countries, where malaria diagnostic expertise is often lacking 4,5. Malaria diagnosis guidelines for the treatment of malaria ncbi. Malaria is an extremely important cause of mortality in different parts of world. Rdts have recently become available in the united states. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites clinical microbiology.
If you clinically suspect a diagnosis of malaria, and the lab result of the malaria test is not available for more than. An infected mother can also pass the disease to her baby at birth. To improve outcomes, early diagnosis and management is critical. The two diagnostic approaches currently used most often, however, do not allow a satisfactory diagnosis of malaria. In a recent study using a commercially available modified haematological apparatus, the qbc tube, the sensitivity of diagnosis by direct centrifugation was at least 8 times better than the conventional approach. Jul 16, 20 malaria antigen detection cannot detect mixed infections cross reactivity with rheumatoid factor reportedly corrected 21. The falciparum parasite causes the most severe form of malaria which can be fatal. The country is a holoendemic area with a yearround transmission pattern. March 25, 2012 acharya tankeshwar lab diagnosis of parasitic disease, parasitology 0. A er outlining the general nursing care needed by these patients, it considers in turn the possible complications, including coma, convulsions, severe anaemia, hypogylcaemia, and. Perform thick and thin blood smears and read within few hours p. The uploader spent hisher valuable time to create this malaria powerpoint presentation slides, to share hisher useful content with the world.
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in india for malaria control, the main thrust of the national vector borne diseases control programme nvbdcp is on early diagnosis and prompt, complete and effective treatment. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical to the effective management of malaria. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria march 25, 2012 acharya tankeshwar lab diagnosis of parasitic disease, parasitology 0 once malaria is suspected on clinical grounds, it is mandatory to obtain the laboratory confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the patients specimen, whenever possible. Malaria can be suspected based on the patients travel history, symptoms, and the physical findings at examination. More recently, modern techniques utilizing antigen tests or polymerase chain reaction have been discovered, though. Malaria is an infectious disease that is spread by mosquitoes, in particular female mosquitoes of the genus anopheles.
Malaria is the second most prevalent disease in pakistan resulting in 30,000 annual deaths. Malaria in equatorial guinea remains a major public health problem. Malaria is a mosquitoborne disease caused by five species of plasmodium parasites. Education and information on diagnosis of malaria in the united states including microscopy, serology, rapid diagnostic testing rdt, and simian malaria. The world health organization estimates that two billion people are at. In malaria patients, a prompt and accurate diagnosis is the key to effective disease management. Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of com. The concurrent incidence of other diseases with malaria may also affect its presentation. Apr 25, 2018 malaria is a very serious illness which can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated in time. Malaria can be a severe, potentially fatal disease especially when caused by, and p. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans.
This helps you give your presentation on malaria in a conference, a school lecture, a business proposal, in a webinar and business and professional representations the uploader spent hisher valuable time to create. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is a leading cause of death in malaria patients in the united states. Malarial parasite was screened in 128 malaria suspected patients and 150 healthy controls, by speciesspecific pcr, microscopy of blood smears, hemoanalyzer. Malaria can occur if a mosquito infected with the plasmodium parasite bites you. Malaria serology antibody detection not routinely used for diagnosis transfusion blood screening investigation of cryptic malaria epidemiological purposes blood stage antigen used 22. Prevention and treatment of malaria is more complex due to the emergence of drug resistance, pesticide resistant mosquito vectors, and large populations of infected people in many areas of the world. Malaria cannot be diagnosed accurately with any one set of clinical criteria. Although this may seem simple, the diagnostic efficacy is sub ject. Chiodini5,6 for the general haematology task force of the british committee for standards in haematology 1clinical diagnostic parasitology laboratory, liverpool school of tropical medicine, liverpool, 2diagnostic parasitology laboratory.
However, the overlapping of malaria symptoms with other tropical diseases impairs its specificity and therefore encourages the indiscriminate use of antimalarials for managing febrile conditions in endemic areas. Malaria should be considered a potential medical emergency and should be treated accordingly. Blood tests are the only way to confirm a malaria diagnosis. Malaria diagnosis is carried out by microscopic examination of blood films collected by active and passive agencies. With traditional diagnostic methodologies, malaria control programs have achieved remarkable success during the past decade, and are now heading toward malaria elimination in many areas. Pdf malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The presence of the parasite in the blood, to confirm that you have malaria. If so, share your ppt presentation slides online with. Aki diagnosis requires quantification of creatinine or urea or observing low urine volume malaria endemic countries and may delay. Data show that child mortality happens every thirty seconds due to malaria so development of a malaria vaccine or the distribution, administration of appropriate and available medicine for treatment of malaria patients is essential 12.1246 1075 1483 611 87 81 1194 598 1411 693 310 1614 1280 738 1396 27 947 762 397 1153 961 1039 1613 326 1156 503 175 1147 1386 1205 1220 1025 871 1641 1445 1090 1476 1278 1202 942 161 616 401 424 757 1113 33